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Citation Guide


What Is Annoted Bibiliograhy?

Below are resources that will help you cite your sources for either a Bibliography or Works Cited page.

There are several ways or ‘styles’ to cite information. Generally speaking, Social and English use MLA and Science uses APA. If you are uncertain which style to use, ask your teacher.

Citing Sources:


Citation Machine

Evaluating Information:

Internet Detective (Effective Tutorial)

Internet Research: Finding and Evaluating Resources (Simon Fraser University)

Critical Evaluation of Internet Resources Checklist (University of Alberta)

Critical Evaluation of Internet Resources Additional Links (University of Alberta)

How to Evaluate Internet Resources (Memorial University Library)

IB Citation and References: Why and When

Why should I cite and reference my sources?

It is very important to cite and reference the sources you use when you do research. Citation and References not only show your readers where you got your information, but also give your essay the credibility and authority.

When should I cite and reference my sources?

Plagiarism Mistakes & How to Avoid Them (Infographic)

4Note Taking Systems To Consider
How to: Cornell, Outlining, Mapping, Box & Bullet

Taking clear and effective notes is an important skill for all students, and essential for effective self-study, paper-writing and revision—but which method is best? We take a look at four popular note-taking systems and the differences between them:

This method not only makes note taking quicker and easier, it also serves as a great tool for memorizing and revising your notes efficiently.

How To:

Add a left-hand margin to your page (around a quarter section). Take notes in the larger section, leaving a gap between each point. After class, review your notes, adding a cue word in the left-hand margin for every significant bit of information. When revising, cover your notes and use the cue word as a memory aid. The aim is to be able to recall all the information that relates to the cue word.

Going forward, you can even use your cue words as a short-hand when taking notes, saving you from having to recopy the same information. These cue words will also make it easier to identify and pull out the concepts and ideas that you need for the task in hand.

For example:

Tip: You can also use a margin method to note your research sources. This will make creating in-text citations in apa style or mla style much easier. These notes will also help when creating an annotated bibliography at the end of your project.

This method uses indenting to group related points by relationship and importance.

How To:

List the main points closest to the left side of your page as headers. Then use indentations to order the related points underneath — with the more important points sitting closer to the left.

This method allows you to easily see related points and their importance, at a glance. However, it can be tricky to order your notes like this in a fast-paced lecture.

For example:

Mapping is great for those who like pen and paper/freehand note taking, as it uses a variety of graphic tools to link related points.

How To:

Use arrows to connect ideas to a central point. You can also use bullets, numbers and color-coding to develop a mapping system that works best for you. It makes it easy to show relationship and points can be covered over to test your memory.

For example:

The Box and Bullet Method is pretty straightforward and emphasizes main ideas and supporting evidence for those ideas.

How To:

A box is drawn for every main idea. Under each box are supporting points that are written next to bullet points.

For a clear idea of how this looks and is done, watch our video lesson linked here.


Research Tips & Videos

Developing a Research Topic

Developing Key words


Developing a Research Question

Why can’t I just Google? Tips

Boolean Search: AND OR NOT

Wikipedia for Research

Writing Ninjas: Thesis Statement

Signal Phrases

Model Signal Phrases

“In the words of researchers Long and Mckenzie”

“As Paul Rudnick has noted…”

“Melinda Stuart, mother of a drunk driver, points out…”

“…, writes Michelle Moore,…”

Verbs in Signal Phrases






















points out



How to write a Summary

Sources: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary

Evaluating websites with the 5Ws

What are In-text citations