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IB & IGCSE Resources


PhET Interactive Simulations – Biology >>

Free, interactive, research-based simulations in biology. The simulations are written in Java, Flash or HTML5, and can be run online or downloaded to your computer. Tools in the simulations provide an interactive experience – Click and drag to interact with simulation features; Use sliders to increase and decrease parameters; Choose between options with radio buttons; Make measurements in your experiments with various instruments – rulers, stop-watches, voltmeters, and thermometers. Presented by University of Colorado, Boulder.

Online Labs in Biology

A list of freely available online biology lab resources, including simulations and virtual labs, in the fields of :general biology; anatomy, physiology and dissection; microscopy, cells and microbiology; genetics and DNA; health, medical treatment and blood types; population biology and dynamics; and animal behavior, evolution and life science.


Read these documents for an understanding of the requirements for IB Biology and the Individual Project.

General introduction, components, and criteria (excerpt from IBDP Biology Guide, first assessment 2016)

40 suggestions for a safer lab from the Laboratory Safety Institute (excerpt from IBDP Biology Guide, first assessment 2016)

Guidelines for the use of animals in IB World Schools

IB Diploma Programme, Biology Guide, first assessment 2016.

Lab Design and Data Analysis

This page gives tips on planning your project:

Designing your lab to minimize errors
Maximizing precision and minimizing uncertainty when collecting data
Knowing when you’ve collected enough data
Conducting the appropriate analysis of your data

Lab Design

Lab Design- reducing errors

Discuss in your procedures the steps you are taking in your experiment to reduce errors.  Address all of the following types of error as they apply to your experiment:

Random, normal variation

Living organisms exhibit random, normal variation.  Not every bean plant, for example, will respond to a manipulated variable in the same way.  Not every cell has the same tonicity.  Not every grass field has the same soil conditions.  How will you account for normal variation in your lab design?

Human error

Humans make mistakes.  How will you reduce human error in your lab design?

The effects of measurement

The act of measuring something may change the very variable being measured.  For example, a cold thermometer inserted into a substance may cool that substance.  How will your lab design reduce or monitor these effects?

Equipment error

How will you test your equipment for accuracy?  Does it require calibration?

Collection of Data

Collection of data- precision and uncertainty

In general, the precision of a tool is plus or minus half of the smallest division on the instrument.  If a thermometer reads in degrees, the precision for the thermometer is +/- 0.5 degree.  When recording a temperature, extend the significant digits to tenths of a degree to match this level of precision.   Here is an example:  14.0 ° +/- 0.5 °C

Since one must estimate the reading on a ruler at both ends of the object, the precision of a ruler is +/- the smallest increment on the ruler (2 times half the smallest increment).  Here is an example:  42 mm  +/- 1 mm.

Find the manufacturer’s estimate of precision for electronic instruments.

Be careful to be precise when measuring.  Read the bottom of a meniscus, for example.  Hold a thermometer in the substance being measured, not touching the glassware that holds the substance.  Take readings at eye level.

Estimate all sources of error in an overall estimate of uncertainty.  For example, a stop watch will have a precision based on the units given, but human reflex speed in starting and stopping the stopwatch will add additional uncertainty.

How Many Data Are Enough?

As a general rule of thumb, test a minimum of five variations in the independent variable and make at least three measurements each.  For example, measure a rate of reaction at a minimum of five temperatures, three times at each temperature.

Create a histogram/frequency distribution of your data.  In general, living systems will give data that fall in a rough approximation of a normal distribution (bell curve).  Significant variation from a normal distribution may indicate the need for more data collection.

Calculate standard deviation.  If the standard deviation is very large compared to the means of your measurements, this may indicate the need for more data collection.

In general, school laboratory time is limiting.  Collect as many data as you can and then push yourself to collect more.

Useful Resources

CIE Past Papers 
1. Past papers for IGCSE Biology  can be obtained from the CIE website under the specific subject at
There are examiners’ reports, question papers and marking schemes for one of the previous year’s exam sessions.

2.  If you want more past papers, go to the CIE website and click on the publications tab. There are usually three years’ worth of past papers, examiners’ reports and marking schemes. For minimal cost, you get a CD-Rom with all the papers in your specific subject. Check here for the latest publications catalogue:

(Online resources can be a great way to supplement learning or make it more interesting. Please let me know if any links are broken.)
Though the material on the BBC Bitesize website is not specifically for the CIE examinations, there are plenty of useful revision topics, especially in the Additional Science category. Mini tests at the end of revision work can help the student consolidate knowledge, or find gaps. Teachers might find this site more useful to send students to when there is a specific topic to reiterate, or revise.
Quite an interesting site that shows mitosis and meiosis, for example. Mini quizzes on cell biology too.
An excellent site for students and teachers on many aspects of biology. This site was created by an experienced teacher.
David Mackean’s site with PowerPoint presentations, experiments sheets to set up, with discussion and answers as well. A site I keep going back to, for ideas, and assistance with experiment set up.
There is a good revision section here for students.
Although this is aimed at AP Level in the USA, this is a site worth looking through by the teachers, as there are many useful exercises. The ‘Various types of cells’ shows most of the common cells under a microscope, and then labels them.
Sometimes a an online reference book can consolidate knowledge or add to the notes that the student already has on a topic. Aimed at teachers.
This is a really comprehensive site, mainly for maths and science. Geared at students of all ages, it is a wonderful site for self-paced learning. Teachers can use the site for lesson planning or to supplement what they are doing. It’s also fun to earn badges for completion of skill levels.
This site has been visited countless times by students, for dictionary definitions of words and terms, tutorials and more. The site can be an excellent reference source for teachers and students.
An American site, this resource is split into various sections of biology and other sciences. It is a portal for other websites and materials, including lesson plans, worksheets and more. Worth having a look at, if you have something specific in mind to supplement your work.
A really comprehensive science research site, useful for teachers or students motivated and eager to learn more in the field of biology. Some really interesting articles posted and updated.
What a great resource – it is like having a team of science teachers at your fingertips. Have a look at this site and try to decide which resources to use to supplement work or to extend a topic.

TOK in Biology

Biology is ripe for TOK discussion and links, and it seems that every month there are curriculum and TOK-related knowledge issues in the news. This section provides some resources to stimulate discussion and give ideas for your TOK Essay.

Biology and TOK

  • Biology is one of the natural sciences, an area of knowledge.
    • The natural sciences can sometimes be placed in false conflict with the arts or religious and indigenous knowledge systems. These conflicts are rarely helpful to the knower.
  • The natural sciences tend to rely on the ways of knowing of sense perception, reason, language, memory.
    • There are many examples of discoveries made or inspired by imagination, intuition and emotion – however these are then rigorously tested and explained using the scientific method (falsification).

There are many good resources on the natural sciences as an area of knowledge on Mr Hoye’s TOK website. This includes a helpful chart of the explicit suggested TOK connections from the IB Biology subject guide.

Case Studies & Provocations

Here are some ideas for connections to the Biology course, either as case studies or simple provocations that can engage students. Many of them basically boil down to the issue of the scientific method and how we decide to act upon (or ignore) scientific evidence. If you find them useful, or have suggestions for improvements, please let me know in the comments.

“Just a theory?”

  • Evolution, natural selection, the nature of science (and falsifiability) and that tired old saying.

Ode to a Flower. Click for lesson.
Ode to a Flower

  • Richard Feynman on his discussion with an artist friend. Who sees the beauty of the flower?

Wade Davis – “The Plants Talk To Us

  • Outstanding TED Talk stimulus. How do tribal shamans work out which combinations of plants give the correct effects without endangering their lives?

Michael Specter – The Dangers of Science Denialism

  • “You have the right to your own beliefs but not your own facts.”

Homeopathy and Oxygen Water (science or pseudoscience)?

  • By what criteria should a claim be judged to be ‘pseudoscientific’?

Facebook Gives You Cancer

  • Media manipulation of low-quality evidence. Over-reaching conclusions.

Altruism and Selfish Genes: Is Anyone Really ‘Good’?

  • Are we truly unselfish or is kindness a veneer to promote our own reproductive fitness?

The Most Gullible City in Australia

  • Australian comedy show pranks media outlets, testing their willingness to fact check. Funny, but an indication of the poor standards of ‘be first’ churnalism that we see all too often.

HIV and AIDS: Dangerous Denialism

  • To some it doesn’t matter how right you are, but how loud you shout. Sadly. 

What’s the worst that can happen?

  • Rationalism, scientific thinking and climate destabilisation.

More ideas

  • Exploration of the IB Animal Experimentation Policy

Project Ideas

Hands-on Science Resources for Home and School

Looking for inspiration for a science fair project? Science Buddies has over 1,200 Project Ideas in all areas of science. The Topic Selection Wizard tool can help you find a project you will enjoy!

All Science Fair Projects

Hundreds of science fair projects in biology, microbiology, biochemistry, and medicine

Vernier Probes and Sensors

Online Labs in Biology

A list of freely available online biology lab resources, including simulations and virtual labs, in the fields of :general biology; anatomy, physiology and dissection; microscopy, cells and microbiology; genetics and DNA; health, medical treatment and blood types; population biology and dynamics; and animal behavior, evolution and life science.


This site provides links to examples of both models and simulations that allow students to manipulate variables, take control and observe datasets forming.

Science Infographics

Ci – Compound Interest

Wonderful science Infographics!

Useful Websites

Virtual textbook by Stephen Lower.

​Useful Resources


Environmental News


Chemistry Courses

Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions is an introductory chemistry course consisting of 13 units of online text, 13 half-hour videos, three interactive labs, and a professional development guide. From Annenberg Foundation.

Basic chemistry help is available here for high school students. Chemtutor begins with the fundamentals and gives expert help with the most difficult phases of understanding your first course in chemistry.

The ChemWiki is a collaborative approach toward chemistry education where an Open Access textbook environment is constantly being written and re-written by students and faculty members resulting in a free Chemistry textbook to supplant conventional paper-based books. The development of the ChemWiki is currently directed by UC Davis Professor Delmar Larsen.

Videos on YouTube which have been recorded by Salman Khan.


Resources for teaching and learning chemistry.

Interactives and Animations

Learning Objects for Chemistry.

Animations of topics in biology, chemistry, earth sciences, and statistics.

Chemistry Videos:

A video about each element on the periodic table.


Mr Bean plays around in a chemistry lab causing a big purple explosion. From Back to School Mr Bean.

Resource Links

There are many excellent Computer Science resources out there,

Computer Science Wiki online IDE for online flowcharts

Moqups for online wireframes

Mockaroo for random data sets

Yuml for making UML diagrams

Geeks for Geeks 

Reddit’s IBO forums

MIT Open Courseware – Computer Science


Data Science degree options in the US

New to Java?

Here are 6 presentations used to teach Java to beginners

Java for Beginners – Level 0 – setup – How to set up an IDE (Eclipse)

Java for Beginners – Level 1 – Variable types

Java for Beginners – Level 2 – Strings and calculations

Java for Beginners – Level 3 – IF (Selection) & random numbers

Java for Beginners – Level 4a – FOR loops (Iteration)

Java for Beginners – Level 4b – WHILE loops (Iteration)

Java for Beginners – Level 6a – Arrays (Linear & 2D)

Java for Beginners – Level 6b – LinkedLists

Java for Beginners – Level 7 – File handling (Reading & writing to text files)

Java for Beginners – Level 8 – Methods

Here is a link to lots of Java examples: Java Examples

More useful Java resources

Here are useful web links for resources scattered all over the world wide web. If you know of any we can add, please let us know.

Comprehensive Java “cheat sheet”

University of Helsinki’s Java MOOC

Java notes with coding examples (including GUI)

Excellent (free!) Java Course for Beginners on Udemy

Tutorials Point – Java Quick Guide

Nanyung University’s GUI guide (good!)

Oracle’s tutorial on GUI (using Swing)

Alvin Alexander’s JOptionPane tutorials

Looking for Java examples?

Java code examples (server can be a bit slow)

Happy codings – examples of more complex Java programming

Other References
Links you to the Computer science at Shanghai American School, discussion web. This website allows students from throughout the world to post questions on their dossier. Other students or teachers around the world can read and answer.

Dresden International School Diploma Programme Computer Sciences Wiki: This site has excellent IB Computer Science study materials.

Java Applications Programming Interfaces (API) this is a primary source for information about the Java language.

Java Subset: AP Computer Science uses a limited subset of the Java language

Online Technical Training

  • Lynda Online Training – This site offers a wide range of online trainings from application usage to learning how to program is particular languages.
  • Teach Me IT – A comprehensive repository of online training for computer fundamentals, online IT training, online computer training, java, web designs, certifications, online courses and many more.
  • Khan Academy – This is an excellent example of using videos to make a great site

DP Computer Science IA examples

The IBO released several example IAs (with moderator comments) for you to gauge what is expected of you.

Here are a dozen official graded example IAs from the IBO.

Extended Essays in Computer Science

IB guidance on EEs

General IB Extended Essay

Specific IB EE Guidance on Computer Science

Topic guidance for Computer Science


EE mark scheme (new)

EE mark scheme guidance

EE mark scheme guidance (specifically for Computer Science)

RPPF form (must be included in final submission)

Examples of Topics

Research Question Grade received
To what extent are support vector machines more accurate than artificial neural networks at predicting ATP tennis matches? A
To what extent is file size affected by compressing data using the Lempel Ziv Markov Chain 2 Algorithm rather than sorting and compressing data using the Burrows Wheeler Transform and Huffman Encoding Algorithms? A
To What Extent are Pseudo-random numbers generated in Java more predictable than ones generated in C#? A
To what extent does MP3 encoding minimize quality loss and file size more efficiently than OGG in terms of algorithmic efficiency and quality of the encoded file? A
To what extent is the binary search algorithm suitable to find specified values from data sets of varying size? A
To what extent is file synchronisation within a Peer to Peer (P2P) protocol a feasible alternative to synchronisation within a file hosting service? B
To what extent is Depth First Search a more efficient algorithm than Breadth First Search in path finding in artificial intelligence for robot motion planning? B
To what extent is hashing more suitable and efficient means to find specific values, than binary search, in different  data set sizes? B
To What Extent Does Password Length & Variation of Characters Affect the Entropy of a Password? B
Under What Circumstances is it more efficient to sort a Collection and perform Binary search than searching an unsorted Collection when searching for a Specific item of Data? B
To what extent is the AES symmetric encryption algorithm more efficient in regards to storage usage compared to the Blowfish symmetric encryption algorithm when encrypting data of varying sizes and types?

6 Best Online Computer Science Courses For Beginners

Archives of Economic and Political Weekly

Economics Graphic OrganizerArchives of Economist

from Hong Kong Education Bureau

Free “Open Access” Books

Open Library

A free, digital lending library of over 2 million eBooks that can be read in a browser or downloaded for reading off-line. And, a unique project to build one web page for every book ever published. Over 20 million books already have a page on



Over 800 free eBooks


JSTOR – Open Access Books

Free resource. More than 950 open access books!

Online Books Page

Free resource. University of Pennsylvania.

DOAB: Directory of Open Access Books

Free digital non-fiction books. See More for Subjects

Useful Resources
Accounting, Business Studies and Economics Dictionary for students
Economics and Business Studies command terms for writing essays and other questions
Course/Exam Specific Resources

  • Biz/ed – A general resource for learning economics, listed by topic.
  • Essentials of Economics – The portal for online resources and case studies relating to the popular textbook “Essentials of Economics”
  • IB Resources – A comprehensive collection of IB Economics HL & SL notes including student’s portfolio essays
  • Internet for Economics – A tutorial for utilizing the internet for economics research
  • Revision Guru – A resource for economics revision tailored to the different exam boards, also includes a free online economics textbook
  • Revision Notes: A-Levels – A collection of revision notes for GCSE and A-level.
  • Revision Notes: IB – A collection of revision notes for the IB.
  • S-Cool – An A-level economics revision site
  • Tutor2U – A resource for AS, A2 and IB economics revision
  • Welker’s Wikinomics – A website created by an IB economics teacher containing useful IB lecture notes as well as a blog

General Economics Interest Resources

Other Resources

  • IB Economics Notes – Note: this looks like a website that someone stopped building after it was about 20% done. There is basically very little content here
  • An excellent example of an Economics Extended Essay by Jeffery Chang

International Reports & Data


Business Studies Videos


The Economist YouTube Channel. New material on Tuesdays and Thursdays

Economic & Finance Reference

“Khan Academy style presentation covering practical financial topics created with ShowMe Interactive Whiteboard iPad App.”

“Official Youtube page for – Your source for financial education.”

Stanford Graduate School of Business

Global Development Video Channels

50+ videos

Economic & Financial Terminology

The Economist

Economics for Juniors

60 Second Adventures in Economics


Over 800 free eBooks

“Download 800 free eBooks to your Kindle, iPad/iPhone, computer, smart phone or ereader. Collection includes great works of fiction, non-fiction and poetry, including works by Asimov, Jane Austen, Philip K. Dick, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Neil Gaiman, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Shakespeare, Ernest Hemingway, Virginia Woolf & James Joyce. Also please see our collection 900 Free Audio Books: Download Great Books for Free, where you can download more great books to your computer or mp3 player.”

DOAB: Directory of Open Access

Free digital non-fiction books.

Literature Criticism Online

Scholarly, popular and contemporary commentary from broadsheets, pamphlets, encyclopedias, books and periodicals of the work of novelists, poets, playwrights, short story writers and scriptwriters, covering 20th Century literature and literature from 1400-1800.

ProQuest Learning: Literature

Primary sources related to poetry, prose, and drama from around the world include interviews and contemporary reviews from over 100 literary magazines and journals. Poets on Screen features videos of poets reading their own work.

Credo Reference: Literature

Top of Form

Search Literature

Bottom of Form

Credo Reference helps you start your research in literature with reference guides to historical and contemporary authors, their times, and their works.

Literary References

From Bartleby

William Strunk Jr.’s classic work from Bartleby.

McGraw-Hill Online Learning Center

Thirteen part series of videos about classic works of world literature.
By David Damrosch.


Exclusive Learning Materials
The following links give basic guidance of the essential technical skills you will need to improve the standard and quality of English Language (for the exams and beyond).

Download File

Download File

Download File

Download File

Download File

Created by Robert Harris, PhD, this site gives definitions and explanations for literary terms. A useful reference tool for student and teacher.
This site is aimed at students/teachers following examination boards other than CIE, so is not as specific as other sites. It is still a helpful resource, especially under the GCSE English Literature section.
This database of UK and Commonwealth authors gives profiles about selected authors and so provides some background reading about each author.
Spartacus is a great resource to find websites. There are several named websites that can be used as resources or references, and other sites even offer free lesson plans. Worth a look for teachers.
Background information on some of the selected poets, for students. There is not too much to read, so alongside the CIE notes on the poetry anthology, this can get the students thinking about the poetry.

News and Periodicals  for EE

What is the Extended Essay?

The extended essay is a required component of the International Baccalaureate® (IB) Diploma Programme (DP).

It is an independent, self-directed piece of research, finishing with a 4,000-word paper.

What is the significance of the extended essay?

The extended essay provides:

  • practical preparation for undergraduate research
  • an opportunity for students to investigate a topic of special interest to them, which is also related to one of the student’s six DP subjects.

Through the research process for the extended essay, students develop skills in:

  • formulating an appropriate research question
  • engaging in a personal exploration of the topic
  • communicating ideas
  • developing an argument.

Participation in this process develops the capacity to analyze, synthesize and evaluate knowledge.

How is study of the extended essay structured?

Students are supported throughout the process of researching and writing the extended essay, with advice and guidance from a supervisor who is usually a teacher at the school.

The IB recommends that students follow the completion of the written essay with a short, concluding interview with their supervisor. This is known as viva voce.

The extended essay and interview can be a valuable stimulus for discussion in countries where interviews are required prior to acceptance for employment or for a place at university.

How is the extended essay assessed?

All extended essays are externally assessed by examiners appointed by the IB. The total marks available are 34.  However, when your supervisor marks your essay in order to arrive at a predicted grade, the grading will be based on the qualitative grade descriptors for the EE, not a translation of a number score into a letter grade.

Students are evaluated on five criterion:

  • Criterion A – focus and method.
  • Criterion B – knowledge and understanding.
  • Criterion C – critical thinking.
  • Criterion D – presentation.
  • Criterion E – engagement.

Assessment Grade Descriptors for the Extended Essay

A list of the qualitative grade descriptors for the Extended Essay, grades A through E. IB senior examiners will use these descriptors to set the boundaries (i.e., grade) the extended essay beginning in May 2018.

Assessment grade descriptors for the EE

Your supervisor is not expected to mark your essay or arrive at a number to translate into a grade. Their predicted grade for your essay will be based on the qualitative grade descriptors listed below. IB’s senior examiners will use these to grade extended essays beginning in May 2018.

Grade A

Demonstrates effective research skills resulting in a well-focused and appropriate research question that can be explored within the scope of the chosen topic; effective engagement with relevant research areas, methods and sources; excellent knowledge and understanding of the topic in the wider context of the relevant discipline; the effective application of source material and correct use of subject-specific terminology and/or concepts further supporting this; consistent and relevant conclusions that are proficiently analysed; sustained reasoned argumentation supported effectively by evidence; critically evaluated research; excellent presentation of the essay, whereby coherence and consistency further supports the reading of the essay; and present and correctly applied structural and layout elements.

Engagement with the process is conceptual and personal, key decision-making during the research process is documented, and personal reflections are evidenced, including those that are forward-thinking.

Grade B

Demonstrates appropriate research skills resulting in a research question that can be explored within the scope of the chosen topic; reasonably effective engagement with relevant research areas, methods and sources; good knowledge and understanding of the topic in the wider context of the relevant discipline; a reasonably effective application of source material and use of subject-specific terminology and/or concepts; consistent conclusions that are accurately analysed; reasoned argumentation often supported by evidence; research that at times evidences critical evaluation; and a clear presentation of all structural and layout elements, which further supports the reading of the essay.

Engagement with the process is generally evidenced by the reflections and key decision-making during the research process is documented.

Grade C

Demonstrates evidence of research undertaken, which has led to a research question that is not necessarily expressed in a way that can be explored within the scope of the chosen topic; partially effective engagement with mostly appropriate research areas, methods and sources—however, there are some discrepancies in those processes, although these do not interfere with the planning and approach; some knowledge and understanding of the topic in the wider context of the discipline, which is mostly relevant; the attempted application of source material and appropriate terminology and/or concepts; an attempted synthesis of research results with partially relevant analysis; conclusions partly supported by the evidence; discussion that is descriptive rather than analytical; attempted evaluation; satisfactory presentation of the essay, with weaknesses that do not hinder the reading of the essay; and some structural and layout elements that are missing or are incorrectly applied.

Engagement with the process is evidenced but shows mostly factual information, with personal reflection mostly limited to procedural issues.

Grade D

Demonstrates a lack of research, resulting in unsatisfactory focus and a research question that is not answerable within the scope of the chosen topic; at times engagement with appropriate research, methods and sources, but discrepancies in those processes that occasionally interfere with the planning and approach; some relevant knowledge and understanding of the topic in the wider context of the discipline, which are at times irrelevant; the attempted application of source material, but with inaccuracies in the use of, or underuse of, terminology and/or concepts; irrelevant analysis and inconsistent conclusions as a result of a descriptive discussion; a lack of evaluation; presentation of the essay that at times is illogical and hinders the reading; and structural and layout elements that are missing.

Engagement with the process is evidenced but is superficial, with personal reflections that are solely narrative and concerned with procedural elements.

Grade E (failing condition)

Demonstrates an unclear nature of the essay; a generally unsystematic approach and resulting unfocused research question; limited engagement with limited research and sources; generally limited and only partially accurate knowledge and understanding of the topic in the wider context of the relevant discipline; ineffective connections in the application of source material and inaccuracies in the terminology and/or concepts used; a summarizing of results of research with inconsistent analysis; an attempted outline of an argument, but one that is generally descriptive in nature; and a layout that generally lacks or incorrectly applies several layout and structural elements.

Engagement with the process is limited, with limited factual or decision-making information and no personal reflection on the process

Find out how points awarded for the extended essay contribute to a student’s overall diploma score.


Source:   International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme website


Twelve-step Plan for Researching the Extended Essay

Need tips on how to get started?  Follow these steps to get going on the research for your Extended Essay.

  1. Choose an available Diploma Programme subject for the extended essay for the session in question.
  2.  Educate yourself. Read the following materials:  the assessment criteria, relevant subject-specific chapter of the Extended Essay guide, the IB’s ethical guidelines and other associated policies where relevant, such as those relating to animal experiments
  3. Set up the Researcher’s Reflective Space (RRS) and use this as the key planning and reflection tool for the extended essay process.
  4. Choose a topic and undertake some background reading in it.
  5. Formulate a preliminary research question.  Try to incorporate an IB command term in the research question if possible.
  6.  Draw up and outline plan for the research and writing process.  This should include a timeline.
  7. Begin to identify how and where you will gather source material for your research.
  8. Identify which system of academic referencing they will use, ensuring that this meets the minimum requirements for the IB.
  9. Set deadlines for yourself that are realistic and take into consideration WSA’s internal EE deadlines.
  10. Plan a structure for the essay.  This may change as the research develops but it is useful to have a sense of direction from the start.
  11. Undertake some preparatory reading in light of the proposed research question.  NOTE:  If you discover that it will not be possible to obtain the evidence needed in the time available, the research question should be changed.  This is  better done sooner rather than later; do not lose time waiting and hoping that something will turn up.  Go back to step 3, 2, or 1, and choose a new research question that can be answered.
  12. Carry out the research.  The material collected should be assembled in a logical order, linked to the structure of the essay and clearly focused on the research question posed.  Only then will you know that you have enough evidence for each stage of the argument so that you can proceed to the next.  You should be prepared for things to occasionally go wrong.  Sometimes you may discover something later in the research that undermines what you thought had been established earlier.  If that happens, your research plan needs to be revised.

A list of the steps necessary in order to carry out the research required for writing the IB Extended Essay – choosing the subject and topic, doing the required reading of IB rules and guidelines, writing the initial research question, and more.

IB Extended Essay Guide (first exams 2018)

IB EE Subject Guides


EE: Unpacking the Criteria from IBO

Use this to Self-Assess your EE

Suggested Online Courses

The IB Extended Essay: Managing your Research Project

Newspapers / magazines

  • L’Express – French newspaper that provides real time information regarding French and International politics, culture, and society. In French only
  • Rue89 – Modern, societal and investigational newspaper.
  • Le Nouvel Observateur – Magazine with real time actualities, mostly neutral.
  • AFP/ Agence France Presse – French press agency.
  • TV5 MONDE – French Web TV and many other aspects of French live.

Literature online

French media

Learning French

Business Studies, Accounting , Finance and Business Management


Online Dictionaries

This online business dictionary features over 115,000 links between relating terms providing a clear and concise description of business terms.

An online dictionary which contains definitions of the major subject specific words that students will come across in secondary level accounting, business studies and economics courses.

Business and Management Articles

Links to open access business and economics journals

Tutor 2 u

Tutor2u publishes e-learning resources for a number of subjects, including Business and Economics.  A range of free and subscription-based materials are available which are designed to support teachers and inspire students.


S-cool provides revision material for many subjects, including Business Studies.  You can also find hints and tips about passing your exams and career advice.

Use this link to access Business Studies in the S-Cool website.

Revision World

The aim of RevisionWorld is to provide a fun and free revision resource for GCSE, AS and A2 levels. RevisionWorld provides the foundations of knowledge on various subjects, including Business Studies.

Business websites

Explore this page to find useful websites and blogs  for your business course. 

In the left column you will find websites for business studies courses and on the right are business blogs.  Listed below are other useful business websites.

This website provides business news from the UK and around the world

The Economist website is an important online source for the analysis of world business and current affairs. It examines international news, world politics, business, finance, science and technology. The site also provides overviews of cultural trends and regular industry, business and country special reports.

This website includes business and finance news from America and around the world.

The Business Link website includes a wide range of useful information and advice on running a business. Topics covered include starting up, finance, taxes and employing people.

This website contains lots of information with the aim of inspiring start up businesses.

Marketing Teacher provides free resources on the topic of marketing for marketing students, teachers and professionals.

Learn Marketing gives users a basic introduction to the subject of Marketing. The site covers theoretical marketing topics such as marketing mix, research and segmentation.

Harvard Business Review

The Harvard Business Review covers many business related topics.

Startups blog

This website contains lots of information with the aim of inspiring start up businesses.

A blog which covers topics related to starting up a new business.

Reference for Business & Economics

Statista consolidates statistical data on over 80,000 topics from more than 22,500 sources and makes it available on four platforms: German, English, French and Spanish.

Trading Economics

Great for indicators, markets, forecasts; by country, continent

EconBiz Reference Desk


Financial Times Lexicon

Wall Street Oasis Finance Dictionary

Databank – World Bank

Free resource

Wall Street Journal: 40 Years in Asia


(Online resources can be a great way to supplement learning or make learning more interesting.
BBC Bitesize is an excellent revision site that contains revision notes and questions for the student to test their knowledge.
This is an A Level site, but it can be a good resource or reference site for teachers and students.
Though not specifically for CIE examinations, this site is a great resource for students and teachers. There is plenty of information here for the students to recap or consolidate knowledge from the course, and the site is quite visual. As there is so much here, it might be more efficient for teachers to guide students to a particular section.
This site has been designed and maintained by a UK teacher. There are quizzes, useful terms and links to other useful sites. This is a good reference tool for teachers and students.
There is a lot of information on this site, so it can either be used for reference by students or teachers, or the work can be used as class work. It is worth looking through, and keeping as a resource.
This colourful site has sections for teachers and students, and is well worth a visit. Case studies include Google, Capital One and Merrill Lynch. There are worksheets and activities that can be completed by the students as part of their knowledge building for business studies.
An American-based site, this is aimed at people who want advice on how to start up and run a business. It can provide useful reference material for teachers and students.
A brilliant site, for me, as I worked on getting my small educational business off the ground. This non-profit organisation is geared towards helping small businesses with mentorship, information, advice and other tools. It is worth a look for real-world advice for businesses.
Trading Economics provides its users with accurate information for 232 countries including historical data for more than 300.000 economic indicators, exchange rates, stock market indexes, government bond yields and commodity prices. It is a useful reference for statistics.
Another useful reference source of information on countries around the world, including economies, government, geography and so on. Worth having as a resource, for teachers and students.
From the CIE website, this website provides information for businesses (in the UK) who want to set up in business. Includes information on a range of issues including marketing and finance plus some useful stories about entrepreneurs.
International Monetary Fund website – useful as a reference or resource guide, but stacked with information so be sure what you are looking for!
This looks like a useful website with revision material and content for Business Studies, Accounting and Law. It is created by one teacher and has plenty of free resources, so have a look around.
Another good site for revision notes or background reading, produced by an experienced teacher of Business Studies and Economics.
Up-to-the minute news reports from the US and the UK. For Business Studies, there are so many resources that can add to case studies, or real-world examples of terms and concepts found in Business Studies.
Another great go-to website with relevant material for teachers and motivated students who want to have up-to-the minute information to balance their Business Studies course.
There are plenty of case studies on this site, with an index to help search for particular topics. The case studies tend to be UK-based, but students can compare with their own country and sketch their own case studies.

For references:


(Chapter-wise notes for business management)


Mathematics Resources

Credo Reference: Mathematics & Statistics

Search Mathematics & Statistics

Credo Reference helps you start your mathematics research with dictionaries of terminology, overviews and histories of core ideas in mathematics, and profiles of key mathematicians.

Mathematical Modeling

U of Bristol

University of Vienna

South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis

Maths Tools…


“Great software for working with graphs, diagrams, functions, spreadsheets, statistics, calculus, and much more”

A beautiful, free online graphing calculator from Alternative to the above tool.

Interactives. NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)

Try 2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144,233,377

Theorem and formulae. Find term in first box and then commandF to find entry

“A modern, easy-to-learn programming language that is great for writing simulations”

Computational Science Education Reference Desk

Excel can do more than you think

Chi-Square Tests

Use the following spreadsheet to carry out a chi-square test for independence, given a table of bivariate numerical data:


Use this spreadsheet to carry out a chi-square test for goodness-of-fit:


IA Exploration topics:


Example of excellent IA
Score 20/20

Example of poor IA
Score: 9/20

Explore a topic with a website:

Might find an idea for an Exploration

Math is Fun


Math Central

The Physics Classroom

Harvey Mudd College

From British International School, Phuket

Useful Resources

IB-specific Online Resources

  • IB Maths SL Syllabus – Maths SL Syllabus.
  • IB Maths HL Syllabus – IB Maths HL Syllabus
  • IB Maths Studies Syllabus – PDF file of the syllabus and course description
  • IB Math resources IB Math resources.
  • IB IA – This publication offers useful suggestions and guidance for the implementation of the internally assessed component—the portfolio
  • IB Maths by Adrian Sparrow – Notes and sample questions on Math Studies, Math SL, and Math HL. Please note that the sample papers on sale on his site are not the IB exam papers. They are written by the owner of the website.
  • IB Math Prep – Site offering complete videos to prepare for all topics covered in the IB SL exam for a one time price.
  • Calc Policy 2008 – Condtions of use for the GDC in examinations.
  • Assessment GDC – Mathematics HL/SL: graphic display calculators—teacher support material. Useful for those not sure what information needs to be provided in an examination answer when using a GDC.
  • IB Portfolio – A clear outline of good and bad portfolios with linked examples and breakdown of pros and cons. Simple yet useful guide to completing your portfolio with minimal fuss. Contains tips, common problems and grading rubric. (Links to actual projects unfortunately broken)

Fun and Games (Mathematical, of course)

  • IXL – Bright, colourful website full of educational games for little’uns. With more than a thousand topics, suitable for Pre-Kindegarten up to Sixth Grade.
  • Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles
  • Gamequarium – Site with links hundreds of math sites containing games and interactive lessons. Probably more for the kids!
  • Mathopolis/ – site containing lots of simple yet frustratingly addictive games involving counting, estimation and memory. Try and get your name on the scoreboard!
  • Lumosity – Brain training for kids and adults alike. Free to demo and lots of activities to try out. Measure your ‘brain BPI’ and keep track of your records

Mathematics programs for the PC

  • GrafEq – A very useful graphing program with “natural display”. Handles most explicit, implicit and parametric equations you can think of elegantly.
  • Geogebra – A very useful graphing program, not as powerful in plotting equations as GrafEq but has a lot useful functions, not least the “slider”.
  • is a support site for the TI-83 calculator (popular in mathematics examinations), from which programs can be downloaded.
  • Omnigraph – Besides plotting graphs, analysing gradients or areas and solving differential equations, you can also draw polygons and reflect, rotate, enlarge or translate them.
  • Geometer’s Sketchpad – Another popular software. Although the quality does come at a cost.




a shining example of how great software can be. The only disadvantage of Omnigraph graphing software is that it is only available for the PC. It is very easy to use (within 2 minutes you’re up and running), it can do an awful lot, it has great interactive exercises, it allows you to enliven your lesson presentations, it is small (1 MB), it runs on all Windows versions, and it is very cheap. You can try it out at no cost for a month. The mathematics chapter contains many ideas of how to put Omnigraph to use.
is the website of Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP) software. It is brilliant for plane geometry issues, and no teacher who wishes to do the plane geometry option in MHL or analytical geometry in MMSL should go without it. With a little experience, teachers will find that an amazing number of problems can be worked through with GSP, even those that don’t seem related to geometry.
is a website which takes the student step by step (controlled by the student) through every odd-numbered question of a large number of mathematics text books. In particular, it supports the book by Stewart, J. (2004) ‘Calculus, 5th edition’, Brooks, Cole, a very popular text for first-year university programmes in the USA. This book is more of a teacher resource that includes useful work on series and vectors in addition to the obvious coverage of calculus from the basics to the level required for the analysis option (and beyond!). The website, however, is a great tool for motivated students to test their understanding.

general mathematics and IT
is the report of a major UK government survey into the effectiveness of IT in the classroom. The report caused somewhat of a storm in educational circles because despite optimistic conclusions, the statistical data seem to imply that IT has brought little, if any, benefits to the quality of education.
is a support site for the TI-83 calculator (popular in mathematics examinations), from which programs can be downloaded.

Open Access Physics Journals

Physics News

Physics and astronomy news

The latest science research news.

Useful Physics Sites


Online book.

Interactive, research-based simulations of physical phenomena from the PhET project at the University of Colorado.
From University of Colorado.

Interactive Sites

Douglas Hamilton, University of Maryland.

From Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone.

From Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone.

from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone.

From Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone.

Physics Courses Online

Crash Course Physics

  • 46 videos

Introduction to Psychology

News and Periodicals

Open Library

A free, digital lending library of over 2 million eBooks that can be read in a browser or downloaded for reading off-line. And, a unique project to build one web page for every book ever published. Over 20 million books already have a page on


Free digital non-fiction books.




British Psychological Association. Reports, Digests, Debates


Cognitive Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Individual Differences
Physiological Psychology
Social Psychology

Interested in Psychologist Career

Psychology Today



Evaluate Source


The CRAAP test!

Here is an acronym that might help you remember the criteria needed to evaluate a source!

A big “thank you” to Tacoma Community College Library! 

Bibliography – Works CIted MLA 8

What to Include

Students are required to use their EasyBib accounts, choosing MLA 8 Format. Your bibliography is printed and handed in with your report. See MYP Librarian if you have any questions. Include:

  • Interviews
  • Correspondence
  • Research using books, online databases, websites
  • Any videos or YouTube selections used in research or for ideas
  • Any lectures, presentations, performances, and political or organization meetings attended
  1. Enter your sources into EasyBib when you first find and use them–making sure the date is included! It is easy to delete a source you decide not to use.

The Touch Test

All in the Mind

The Touch Test. Claudia Hammond launches a major new study investigating the role of touch. She invites the audience to take part by completing an online questionnaire.

Useful Links for All IB Psychology Students

IB Psychology Guide (first assessment 2019)
This website is the most important one for all IB Psychology students! Everything is based on the this document!

English-Finnish Psychology Dictionary
Extremely useful website for checking psychological vocabulary

List of psychological theories
A Wikipedia page

How theories are used in psychology?
A summary of theories in general and the nature of theories in psychology

Psychology wizard
This is not an IB Psychology site, but contains good info on some studies.

25 famous psychological studies
Summary of famous psychological studies

IB Psychology by Derek Burton
A website by another IB Psychology Teacher

IB Psychology by Travis Dixon
A website by another IB Psychology Teacher

IB Psychology by John Crane
A website by another IB Psychology Teacher

A list of knowledge questions for  IB subjects Very popular

Articles useful for TOK purposes may be found in a wide range of magazines/journals. Here are some titles that worth a browse.

Poster: Top ten tips for your TOK presentation

e-review: Choosing a title for your TOK essay

Poster: Using the knowledge framework (September 2017)

Important authors in Language  discipline:

Other worth watching TED talks:

  • TED talk: Lera Boroditsky: How language shapes the way we think
    • There are about 7,000 languages spoken around the world — and they all have different sounds, vocabularies and structures. But do they shape the way we think? Cognitive scientist Lera Boroditsky shares examples of language — from an Aboriginal community in Australia that uses cardinal directions instead of left and right to the multiple words for blue in Russian — that suggest the answer is a resounding yes. “The beauty of linguistic diversity is that it reveals to us just how ingenious and how flexible the human mind is,” Boroditsky says. “Human minds have invented not one cognitive universe, but 7,000.”

Why you Shouldn’t trust your feeling

ToK Notes – Theory of Knowledge (TOK) is a required interdisciplinary course intended to stimulate critical reflection inside and outside the classroom

IB Guide – is a very interesting independent website, which seeks to provide independent guides for EE/TOK and general IB success. Guides written by successful former IB candidates and aimed at current IB Diploma students. The site also provides free downloads of grade A IB assessments.

IB Theory of Knowledge (ToK) Resources at Anagnosis Books

ToK Notes and Resources
Word document versions of the TOK resources to print out

Aims of the Theory of Knowledge (TOK) programme
Aims of the Theory of Knowledge (TOK) programme Perception | Reason | Language | Emotion |

How to write a good TOK essay – Aims, Objectives, Linking Questions.

Media Criticism TOK presentation topic: Media Ethics and bias.

KA ThoK-Notes TOK notes.

Philosophy Games Some TOK related games. Take a look at Battleground God.

Science and TOK Notes on Science and TOK.

TOK Help Theory of Knowledge resources, discussion, and essay assistance.

TOK Guide (pdf file)

TOK homepage

Epistemoloy index

Think is a periodical of the British Royal Institute for Philosophy. Published tri-annually, this magazine is aimed squarely at those with no philosophical background – great for students.

Great list of Philosphy resources here What are the best philosophy resources?

Teaching Philosophy is a US publication aimed more at first-year undergraduates and university teachers than at high school students, but it still has lots of very useful ideas and articles.

The Philosophers Magazine is a British journal devoted to interesting issues within philosophy. Its scope is rather wider than Theory of Knowledge, though it is not an academic journal, and it is packed full of interesting and funny articles. The interactive ‘games’ page is particularly fun and worth a visit.

The British Prospect is another magazine that is more general but regularly has excellent TOK resources. As an example, the April 2003 edition contains, among other things, articles on why art galleries should show copies of great works rather than originals; why the scientific community rejects controversial environmental findings; how Hollywood movies are in effect rewriting history for today’s movie-going culture; and why a particular brand of relativism does not stand up to analysis.

Parabola Magazine is published four times a year and is thematically based. The back issues on language, consciousness and several other issues are well worth ordering in. Highly accessible and stimulating it draws from universal sources of all types. There are videos as well.

Forum is the official IB Theory of Knowledge magazine. Discussing assessment, lesson plans and activities, schemes of work and conferences, it is an extremely useful resource. The paper version is distributed free to all diploma schools.

The IB Online Curriculum Centre (OCC) is a growing collection of links and resources. It contains a discussion forum, a resource centre, exemplar essays and the relevant chapters from the Vade Mecum. You need a password and user ID to log in – see your DPC if you do not have one.

Pathways to philosopy is devoted to distance learning of philosophy. There are some very good e-books that you can download.

Peter Suber’s site is an extraordinarily comprehensive search guide to philosophy on the net. You can use it to find almost anything you want – probably in far more detail than you need.

IB Exams and mark schemes

This page has links to exam schedules and where to purchase past exam papers from the IBO:

Useful Websites

The TED Talks – an excellent collection of short lectures from great thinkers

The Sputnik Observatory – excellent collection of short video clips

IB TOK Blogspot – loads of useful ideas and guidance for the essays and presentations

The Edge

Amy Scott

Mr. Duncan’s TOK Website

IB a Student

The Exploratorium

Biblio Connections

Anagnosis Books

The Philosopher’s Magazine Online

Philosophy Now Magazine Online

National Geographic Online

The Sceptic Magazine Online

Snopes – Exposing Urban Legends

The Philosophy Pages – An Encyclopaedia of Philosophers & Philosophical Terms

The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy

The Oxford University Philosophy Page

The A-Z of Almost Everything Philosophical

TOK Help – Textbook Excerpts

TOK Notes – Examination of the AOKs

TOK Blog – British International School in Phuket

Essay and Presentation Advice

Zeno’s Coffeehouse – A Variety of TOK Conundrums

Christianity Today

Atheism at About

Marxists Org

Infidels Org

The Grazian Archives

Arts & Letters Daily

Up Close Podcasts from the University of Melbourne

Pro / Con – A Series of Arguments For and Against a Wide Variety of Issues

Philosophy for TOK Guide

Exploring Issues with Knowledge-TOK Presentation

TOK PRESENTATION - Real life situations

How to do a TOK presentation right!

TOK Presentation Intuition

Student Art Guide

Art Tips

Folio Examples

Perceptions of identity – featuring the International Baccalaureate artwork of Iris Cheung, completed as part of the IB Visual Arts Diploma Programme at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, 2012.

Fine Art/Painting sketchbooks

Graphic design sketchbooks

Photography sketchbooks

Sculpture and 3D design sketchbooks

Database to use for the Arts

JSTOR – Open Access Books

Free resource. More than 950 open access books!

Google Arts & Culture

IMSLP: International Music Score Project Library

Free resource

The National Archives (UK)

Free resource. 1,000 years of records

DPLA: Digital Public Library of America

Free resource. Explore 16,501,850 items from libraries, archives, and museums

Library of Congress

Free resource

Artists & Art History

Absolutely massive – definitely worth a look around. Maintained by Christopher Witcombe, Professor of Art History at Sweet Briar College, Virginia

Art history blog

“The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History pairs essays and works of art with chronologies, telling the story of art and global culture through the Museum’s collection.”

The Art Story


Credo Reference: Art and Art History

Search Art

Credo Reference helps you start your art research with reference resources in art history, biographies of artists, and vast image collections from the Bridgeman Archives.

Animation / Cartoons

Jerry Beck and friends with news, reviews and comments

The world’s first hypertext encyclopedia of toons

Animator Gene Deitch tells the story of his life through the people who made his career possible.

Animator Mark Mayerson’s blog. Excellent commentary and insights

Harry McCracken’s delightful tribute to the forgotten Columbia cartoon star of the 1930s!


Don M. Yowp digs deep into cartoon history

TV Episode Lists Menu for Animated & Puppet Shows. See Entry Example above!

Library of Congress Collection

Free Photography


New York City photo blog of Jochen Brennecke


Museums & Collections

George Eastman House. Photography & cinema

Bibliothèque nationale de France



Purdue U

Start Here…


Elements & Principles of Art

Useful Resources

Useful Resources

  • Kinder Art
  • CIA World Fact Book – The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 266 world entities.
  • CBBC – News articles and articles on various subjects and topics, quizzes, games, clips and downloads.
  • Primary – Subject specific worksheets and activities listed under different topics.
  • Activity – Colouring pages, kids crafts, home school resources, puzzles, printables, jigsaws, sudoku and other activities for kids.
  • – A Primary Website – Interactive learning games, quizzes, and worksheet generator tools by subject (preK-grade 6).
  • IXL Maths – Maths practice site with maths questions in more than 1,000 topics (Pre-K to Grade 6 skills).
  • Seussville – Countless fun reading activities from Dr Seuss for lower primary students.
  • Reading comprehension skills practice – An array of reading comprehension activities based on original stories, poems, essays and articles. Most suitable for upper primary to early secondary level.
  • The Kitz Page – This site contains online maths and number activities, Sudoku, educational word and picture games, clipart, puzzles, colouring pages and downloads.
  • Merriam-Webster’s Word Central – Go to this link for superior word power and language fun. Challenge yourself to spelling and vocabulary games, learn the meaning of daily buzz words, and even create your own dictionary.
  • Shodor Interactive – This site is comprised of a series of interactive online maths activities, lessons, and discussions. You can browse by age range, subject or topic.
  • – Choose your grade level and try the daily quizzes, word games and maths quizzes on this site.
  • @school – @school is an easy to use and child friendly website organised around the UK National Curriculum for primary education at home or school at Key Stage 1 (KS1). and Key Stage 2 (KS2). @school provides online tests, interactive exercises, worksheets, pictures and much more based on curriculum subjects including KS2 Maths, KS2 Numeracy, KS2 English and KS2 Science.
  • Room 108 – This site has over 900 pages of Kids Educational Games, Interactive Writing, Animated Stories, Songs, Kids Puzzles, Art, Math, Science, Social studies, Distance Learning and much more.
  • – Learn about animals, astronomy, geology, science, maths and spelling on this site. There are also featured learning activities and games on various topics like dinosaurs, the universe, the human body, and many others.
  • – A collection of reading, maths and science activities, web books and comics (K to Grade 8).
  • Math Playground – An action-packed site for primary to early secondary students. Practice your maths skills, play a logic game and have some fun!
  • Primary Games – Learn with a series of language art, maths, social studies, and science activities. Challenge yourself to puzzles, send postcards and do much more on this site.
  • Teaching and learning resources for Key Stage 2 – On-line, stimulating, interactive, teacher-written learning resources to support the National Curriculum for England and Wales for children in Key Stage 2 (ages 7 to 11) of Primary School. Subjects include literacy, maths, science, history, geography and DT.

TOK Links with Art
1. Marcus du Sautoy TED talk about universal symmetry in nature.
2. Excellent Maths Illuminated unit on symmetry
3. Article about Pollock’s fractals in art.
4. Short BBC documentary looking at Escher’s maths through art.